Poland had one NPP in construction in the years 1985-1991. The siting decision to locate 4 units WWER- 213 type, 440 MW each, in Zarnowiec (Gdansk region) was taken in December 1972. The site preparation started in 1982, the construction license for 2 units was issued in 1985 and the construction works started in 1986. In 1991 the Polish government decided not to continue and cancelled the overall project.
One research reactor, MARIA, a 30 MW high flux channel-pool type reactor, is in operation since 1974.
In 2005, a document entitled Polish Energy Policy up to 2025, was approved by the government and stated that nuclear power will be implemented in Poland.
In November 2009 Poland’s Energy Policy until 2030 was developed by the Polish Ministry of Economy. The document contains a long-term development strategy for the energy sector, the forecast demand for fuel and energy, and an action program until 2012. The strategy responds to the crucial challenges facing the Polish energy sector in the short and long terms. Improved energy efficiency is to reduce the impact of growth in demand for fuels and energy, which in turn will contribute to increased energy security, due to reduced dependence on imports. This also will limit the impact of energy on the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. As for nuclear energy, the Policy sets out measures aimed at creating a legal framework and organizational structure, as well as training human resources, including scientific research personnel. It will be also necessary to carry out analysis for the location of nuclear plants and radioactive waste burial sites.
In January 2009, the government issued a statement on its plans to embark on nuclear programme, with the first NPP entering in operation in 2020 (later changed to 2022), and the second NPPs (4 units) in 2030.
In 2010, the best sites for nuclear power plants were chosen.
Polish energy company PGE was the one looking for investors to realize the project the value of which is, according to the latest estimates, about 10 billion euros. The partner that was to hold a 49 percent ownership share in the nuclear power plant was to be selected by the end of 2010. One of the crucial criteria in the selection process was, in addition to the construction deadlines, also integration of Polish companies in the construction process. Government estimations show that this project will create up to 10 000 new jobs.
COOPERATION WITH NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES
In February 2006 Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Premier Ministers signed Declaration and Communiqué declaring inter alia intention to support the initiative to build a new nuclear power plant in Lithuania. In March 2006 three Baltic Energy Companies - Lietuvos Energija AB, Eesti Energija and Latvenergo have signed a memorandum of understanding on Preparation for Construction of a New Nuclear Reactor in Lithuania. Poland will also participate in building a nuclear power plant in Lithuania. The project will probably be co-financed by the Polska Grupa Energetyczna (PSE).
NUCLEAR EDUCATION AND TRAINING
The Bachelor’s degrees available include: the AGH University of Science and Technology/Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza Im. Stanislawa Staszica w Krakowie, which offers a degree in chelor's degree in Nuclear Power Engineering in its Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering.
The Consortium Personnel for Nuclear Energy Industry and Technology in Industry and Medicine//Kadry dla Energetyki Jadrowej i Technologi Jadrowej w Przemysle i Medycynie (Maria Curie-Sklodowska University/Uniwersytet Marii Curie Sklodowskiej, Wroclaw University of Technology/Politechnika Wroclawska and University of Warsow/Uniwersytet Warszawski) offers a range of degrees which include: a Specialization in Design and Utilization of Energy Systems within its Energetics studies (at the Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering), a Specialization in Nuclear Safety and Radiological Protection within its Physics studies (at the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Computer Science), a Bachelor’s degree in Nuclear Energetics and Chemistry (at the University of Warsow, Faculty of Chemistry and Faculty of Physics).
Besides this consortium, several universities offer a nuclear specialization in its Energy Engineering, which include: the Poznan University of Technology/Politechnika Poznanska (Faculty of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Faculty of Technical Physics), which offers a Nuclear Energy Engineering Specialization in its Energy Engineering degree, the Silesian University of Technology/Politechnika Slask, which offers a Nuclear Engineering specialization within its Mechanics and Machinery Design department and a Nuclear Energetics Specialization in its Energy Engineering degree (Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering), and the Wroclaw University of Technology/Politechnika Wroclawska, which offers a specialization in Nuclear and Thermal Engineering in its Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering in its Energy Engineering degree.
Regarding Master's Degree, the AGH University of Science and Technology/Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza Im. Stanislawa Staszica w Krakowie offers two degrees: Technical Physics with a specialization in Nuclear Physics, and Energy Engineering with a specialization in Nuclear Energy Engineering. In addition, the University of Warsow/Uniwersytet Warszawski will offer a Nuclear Energetics and Chemistry degree starting in 2012/13.
At the Doctorate level, the AGH University of Science and Technology/Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza Im. Stanislawa Staszica w Krakowie offers Doctorates in Technical Nuclear Physics (Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science), and Energy Engineering (in the Faculty of Energy and Fuels).
The Polish Academy of Sciences/Polska Akademia Nauk is the main educational institution offering the possibility of a Doctorate degree in the nuclear field in several of its institutes which include: Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies/Instytut Problemów Jadrowych im. Andrzeja Soltana (since September 2011, together with POLATOM, the National Centre for Nuclear Research, the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics/Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej im. Henryka Niewodniczanskieg (specifically the International PhD Studies at the Institute of Nuclear Physics), the Institute of Molecular Physics/Instytut Fizyki Molekularnej, the Institute of Physics/Instytut Fizyki, the University of Gdansk/Uniwersytet Gdański, which offers a Doctorate degree in Experimental Physics - Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy and in Theoretical Physics - Atomic and Molecular Physics.
There is a high level of activity in the nuclear research field and the institutions involved in this include the following: AGH University of Science and Technology/Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. Stanislawa Staszica w Krakowie, particulary the Faculty of Energy and Fuels (Department of Nuclear Energy) and the Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection/Centralne Laboratorium Ochrony Radiologicznej, the Institute of Atomic Energy POLATOM/Instytut Energii Atomowej POLATOM, and the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion/Instytut Fizyki Plazmy i Laserowej Mikrosyntezy.
The universities involved in the nuclear research field include the following: the Jagiellonian University/Univwersytet Jagiellonski w Krakowie with its Department of Nuclear Physics and the Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, the Institute of Physics of the Jan Kochanowski University/Uniwersytet Humanistyczno-Przyrodniczego Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach, the Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Computer Science of the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University/Uniwersytet Marii Curie Sklodowskiej, the University of Silesia in Katowice/Uniwersytet Slaski w Katowicach, the Institute of Physics of the University of Szczecin/Uniwersytet Szczeciński, the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy - particulary the Department of Physics - of the University of Wroclaw/Uniwersytet Wroclawski, the Faculty of Physics of the Warsaw University of Technology/Politechnika Warszawska, the University of Warsow/Uniwerstet Warszawski – Heavy Ion Laboratory.
Finally, the Polish Academy of Sciences/Polska Akademia Nauk as has done much work in the nuclear research field and several of its institutions have been involved: the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies/Instytut Problemów Jadrowych im. Andrzeja Soltana (since September 2011, together with POLATOM, the National Centre for Nuclear Research), the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics/Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej im. Henry Niewodniczanski, the Institute of Molecular Physics/Instytut Fizyki Molekularnej, the Institute of Physics/Instytut Fizyki (especially its Division of Radiation Physics and Spectroscopy), and the Research Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology/Instytut Chemii I Techniki Jadrowej (ICHTJ).
Work in the nuclear field is overseen by the Polish Nuclear Physics Network/Siec Polskiej Fiztki Jadrowej, which has been formed by thirteen Polish research and educational institutions.