Italy

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Italy does not operate any NPP.
 
18 months after the accident in Chernobyl, in November 1987, a referendum was held which resulted, finally, in the Italian government stopping the nuclear programme in 1988.  It also resolved to halt all nuclear construction, shut the remaining reactors and decommission them from 1990. After these events, Italy remained largely inactive in nuclear energy for the next 15 years.
 
In 2004, a new energy law opened up the possibility of joint ventures with foreign companies in relation to nuclear power plants and importing electricity from them. Nowadays, some 10% of Italy’s electricity comes from imported nuclear power. 
 
In May 2008, the new pro-nuclear Italian government confirmed that it would commence building new nuclear power plants within five years, to reduce the country's great dependence on oil, gas and imported power.
 
In July 2009, the comprehensive economic development legislation was passed and made nuclear power a key component of energy policy with a view to having 25% of electricity generated by nuclear power by 2030.
 
In February 2010 a decree was approved that paved the way for starting work on new plants in 2013 and production of the first nuclear power in 2020. 
 
In March 2010, the new guidelines for the localization of nuclear power plants in Italy were issued.
 
By July 2010, the new Nuclear Safety Agency (ASN, Agenzia per la Sicurezza Nucleare), established under the July 2009 law, was due to deliver its draft guidelines to prepare technical criteria for site selection in terms of population and socio-economic issues, risk of seismic activity and hydrology, amongst others.
 
In June 2011,  a claim against Italy's national nuclear policy brought by eleven regional governments has been rejected by the Constitutional Court
 
Immediately following the Fukushima accident, the Italian government had declared a one-year delay on nuclear plans.
 
In January 2011, the Constitutional Court ruled that Italy could hold a referendum on the planned re-introduction of nuclear power, as proposed by an opposition party. The question posed in the referendum, held in mid-June, was whether voters want to cancel some 70 legislative and regulatory measures which had been taken by the government over three years to make it possible to build new nuclear power plants. The referendum strongly rejected the initiatives promoted by Mr. Berlusconi, also the 2009 legislation setting up arrangements to generate 25% of the country's electricity from nuclear power by 2030.
 
NUCLEAR EDUCATION AND TRAINING
 
At the Bachelor’s degree level, there are number of courses offered in the nuclear field which include: the University of Pisa/Università di Pisa, which offers a degree in Nuclear and Safety Engineering, the Technical University of Turin/Politecnico di Torino, which offers a degree in Energy Engineering with a special interest in the Nuclear and Safety Engineering, the University of Palermo/Università degli Studi di Palermo, which offers a degree in Energy Engineering and the Specialist degree in Engineering and Safety of Nuclear Technologies, the University of Roma/Sapienza Università di Roma, which offers a degree in Energy Engineering, and  the University of Bologna/Università di Bologna, which offers the possibility of a nuclear specialization as a part of the degree in Energy Engineering.
 
Additionally, there is the possibility of specialization the last year of a degree. In this way, the Milan Polytechnic/Politecnico di Milano offers third year specialization in Nuclear Engineering within the Energy Engineering degree.
 
At the Master’s degree level there is a wider range of possibilities as follows: the Milan Polytechnic/Politecnico di Milano offers a degree in Nuclear Engineering, the University of Bologna/Università di Bologna offers a degree in Nuclear and Sub-nuclear Physics and Energy and Nuclear Engineering, and the University of Pisa/Università di Pisa offers a degree in Technology of Nuclear Installations/Tecnologie degli impianti nucleari and Nuclear Safety and Security, and a Master’s diploma or degree in Nuclear Engineering and Safety.
 
The University of Turin/Università di Torino offers a degree in Nuclear and Sub-nuclear Physics/Laurea Magistrale in Fisica. Percorso Fisica nucleare e subnucleare. The University of Roma/Sapienza Università di Roma offers a degree in Energy Engineering.
 
At the Doctorate level, there are the following possibilities: the University of Roma/Sapienza Università di Roma, which offers a PhD in the nuclear field, the University of Palermo/Università degli Studi di Palermo, which offers a degree in Engineering of Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fusion, the Milan Polytechnic offers a degree in Energy and Nuclear Science and Technology which is sponsored by the Department of Energy, the University of Bologna/Università di Bologna, which offers a degree in Nuclear and Sub-nuclear Physics, the University of Pisa, which offers a degree in Nuclear and Industrial Safety uclear/Sicurezza nucleare ed industriale, and the Technical University of Turin/Politecnico di Torino, which offers the possibility of doing a thesis in the nuclear field as part of the PhD in Energy.
 
Finally the Interuniversity National Nuclear Technology Research Association/Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Ricerca Tecnologica Nucleare (CIRTEN), represents the Italian network institution for education and research in the nuclear field. Another association involved in the nuclear field is the Italian Nuclear Association/Associazione Italiana Nucleare (AIN).